The place of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the history of our statehood


Every dark night is a sunny morning. In the history of the Azerbaijani people, the dark night is the genocide of March 1918, and the sunny morning is May 28, 1918. May 28 is the most glorious summit in the history of our independence. This is a meaningful thing. Mathematicians call this an axiom.
Not every nation is independent. There are peaks in the history of many nations of the world. For the Anatolian Turks, October 29, the capture of the Bastille for the French, the unification of the Germans as a single state in the second half of the 19th century, and July 4 are the greatest historical events for the Americans. Allahu ta'âlâ has bestowed such a happy day on our people. The beginning of this happy history is May 28, 1918.
Marx once wrote that without ancient Greece, there would be no ancient Rome, without ancient Rome, there would be no modern Europe. MA Rasulzadeh wrote: "If there was no World War I, there would be no February bourgeois revolution, if there was no February bourgeois revolution, there would be no Azerbaijan Democratic Republic."
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, which has been operating for 23 months, despite the time constraints, has managed to implement the following:

• On May 28, 1918, the National Council of Azerbaijan held its first meeting in Tbilissi (Georgia) under the chairmanship of Hasan bey Agayev and adopted the "Declaration of Independence" consisting of 6 articles. Thus, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established.
• Transformed the term Azerbaijan, which is a geographical concept, into a political concept. Until now, this territory, which was defined under different names, was called Azerbaijan, and the state was called the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
• For the first time in its history, Baku became the capital of all Azerbaijan.
• On June 4, 1918, the Batum Treaty was signed with the Ottoman Empire.
• On June 21, 1918, it adopted the first state symbols of Azerbaijan.
• On June 21, a flag (similar to the Ottoman flag) depicting a white crescent and a white octagonal star on a red cloth was adopted;
a) On November 9, our current tricolor flag and octagonal star were adopted;
• On June 24, 1918, Gori decided to move the Azerbaijani branch of the Teachers' Seminary to Gazakh.
• On June 26, 1918, it decided to establish the Azerbaijani National Army.
• On June 27, 1918, it was decided to declare the Azerbaijani (Turkish) language the state language.
• From June 27 to July 1, 1918, near the Black Sea, the Caucasian Islamic Army routed the forces of the Baku Soviet, led by Korganov.
• On July 15, 1918, an Extraordinary Commission of Inquiry was established to investigate the genocides committed by the Armenian-Dashnak forces against the Turkish-Muslim population and to convey the historical truth to the world.
• On July 20, 1918, the Caucasian Islamic Army liberated Shamakhi from Baku Soviet forces.
• On July 30, 1918, the city of Yelizavetpol was renamed Ganja, Qaryagin Jabrayil.
• On July 31, 1918, the Baku Soviet forces, led by Shaumyan, resigned.
• On September 15, 1918, the Caucasian Islamic Army led by Nuru Pasha liberated Baku from the Central Caspian forces.
• On September 17, 1918, the National Government led by Fatali khan Khoyski entered Baku. Baku has become the capital of Azerbaijan.
• On October 21, 1918, the Azerbaijan Treasury Chamber was established.
• On November 1, 1918, the Ministry of War was established.
• In November 1918, the Azerbaijan Judicial Chamber was established.
• On December 7, 1918, the Parliament of Azerbaijan was established.
• In the Azerbaijani Parliament, 80 seats were allocated to the Turkish-Muslim population, 21 to Armenians, 10 to Russians, 1 to Germans, 1 to Jews, 1 to Georgians and 1 to Poles. The democratic composition of the parliament may surprise even the Council of Europe today.
• The Parliament held 145 sessions over 17 months, discussed more than 270 bills, and adopted 230 of them.
• There were 11 parliamentary factions and 11 commissions.
• The division of power in Azerbaijan was carried out: 1. Legislative, 2. Executive 3. Judicial power.

• In December 1918, the Azerbaijani parliament decided to erect a monument on the highest point of Baku in honor of Turkish and Azerbaijani soldiers killed in the liberation of Baku.
• In December 1918, the national currency, the Baku bond, was put into circulation.
• On December 28, 1918, the parliament decided to send a special delegation to the Paris Peace Conference headed by A. Topchubashov.
• On December 28, 1918, General Thomson declared his recognition of the government led by Fatali khan Khoyski.
• In January 1919, the Karabakh Governor-General's Office was established in Karabakh to put an end to the illegal actions of Armenian separatists. In February, Khosrov bey Sultanov was appointed governor.
• In February 1919, the Nakhchivan Governor-General was established to prevent the attacks on Nakhchivan by the Armenians.
• On March 3, 1919, the Azerbaijan Telegraph Agency was established.
• On March 21, 1919, the Alphabet Reform Commission was established. The goal was to switch to the Latin alphabet.
• Since March 1919, Novruz holiday has been celebrated at the state level.
• In 1919 and 1920, March 31 was marked as a day of national mourning at the state level.
• In March 1919, the National Security Service was established under the name "Counter-Revolutionary Organization".
• On June 11, 1919, the State Defense Committee was established.
• On June 15, 1919, a military pact was signed with Georgia against the threat of Denikin.
• On June 28, 1919, the British government officially informed the Paris Peace Conference that the British army would be withdrawn from the Caucasus.
• On July 21, 1919, the parliament approved the regulations on elections to the Constituent Assembly of the Republic of Azerbaijan. According to the regulations, equality between women and men was established in the elections.
• On August 11, 1919, the Parliament adopted a law on Azerbaijani citizenship. That is, the representatives of all nationalities living in the territory of Azerbaijan, regardless of color, race or gender, were declared equal before the law.
• On August 24, 1919, Colonel Haskel's statement on the establishment of the US Governor-General in Nakhchivan was announced, and American Colonel Edmund Delli was appointed governor of the zone. However, as a result of serious resistance from the Azerbaijani government and strong protests from the people of Nakhchivan, the Americans were unable to realize their intentions.
• From August 20 to September 2, 1919, the first congress of Azerbaijani teachers was held.
• On August 22, 1919, the Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh made a 26-point commitment to the Azerbaijani government.
• On August 23, 1919, the Commission on Refugees and Displaced Persons was established.
• The government has adopted 10 decisions and laws at the parliamentary and governmental levels regarding the refugee population.
• On August 25, 1919, British forces left Baku.
• In August 1919, the Caspian Navy was established.
• On September 1, 1919, the Azerbaijani parliament passed a law to send 100 Azerbaijani students abroad.
• On September 1, 1919, the Azerbaijani Parliament adopted a law on the establishment of Baku State University. Classes began on November 15.
• In the summer of 1919, the government of Azerbaijan, despite financial difficulties, provided assistance to the Mountainous Republic of Dagestan in the amount of 50 million manat.

• On September 3, 1919, the Russian military forces in the Lankaran region were disarmed.
• The State Bank was established on September 30, 1919.
• In October 1919, censorship of the press was abolished.
• On November 23, 1919, the Azerbaijan-Armenia agreement was signed in Tbilissi (Georgia).
• In December 1919, the "Independence" Museum was opened.
• In 1919, the Baku-Batumi oil pipeline was restored and put into operation to bring Baku oil to the world market.
• At the end of 1919, the Fortress School, the Military Railway School, the Military Paramedic School and the Military School were opened.
• The national government allocated 500,000 manat for the construction of the Nizami Mausoleum in Ganja. But there was no time to build the mausoleum.
• On January 11, 1920, in Versailles, Azerbaijan was de facto recognized by the Supreme Council of the Paris Peace Conference.
• On January 14, 1920, prayers were read at the Tazapir Mosque in honor of the de facto recognition of Azerbaijan by the Supreme Council of the Paris Peace Conference. A solemn session of the parliament was held, and the official parade of the National Army took place in Hürriyet Square.
• On March 20, 1920, a trade agreement was signed with Soviet Russia. However, Russia did not comply with the agreement.
• On March 20, 1920, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was recognized de facto and de jure by Iran.
• According to the agreement signed with Iran on March 20, 1920, an embassy was established in Tehran, a consulate general in Tabriz, a consulate in Rasht, a vice-consulate in Ardabil, Mashhad, and consular agencies in Khoy and Ahar.
• In the early 1920s, the number of the army of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic reached 40,000. Of these, 30,000 were pedestrians and 10,000 were watermen.
• Baku-Julfa railway was built and put into operation.
• A bridge was built over the Kura River.
On April 27, 1920, the last - 145th session of the Azerbaijani Parliament began at 20.45 in the evening and lasted until 23.25.
On April 27, 1920, the Parliament decided by a majority vote to hand over power to the Communists on seven conditions.
The occupation of April 1920 did not allow the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to realize the following:
• Baku failed to export oil to the world market at full capacity.
In 1994, under the direct leadership of Heydar Aliyev, the "Contract of the Century" was signed. Baku oil was exported to the world market via the Baku-Ceyhan International Oil Pipeline.
• He could not open a higher military school in Azerbaijan. After the restoration of our independence, a large number of military universities were opened.
• Failed to adopt the Constitution of Azerbaijan. In November 1995, the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted.
• Failed to hold parliamentary elections. Parliamentary elections were held in November 1995.
• Failed to switch from Arabic to Latin script. During the restoration of independence, the Latin alphabet was introduced.
• Could not resolve agrarian issue, ie land issue. In 1996, the agrarian issue was resolved.
• The Caucasus failed to erect a monument in honor of the Islamic Army. In 2000, this magnificent monument was unveiled in the Alley of Martyrs.
• Due to the fault of Armenia and Soviet Russia, it was unable to establish neighborly relations with those countries. Today, as a result of Armenia's aggressive policy, it has not been possible to establish neighborly relations with it. At present, there are sincere relations with the Russian Federation in all directions.
In the twentieth century, our people lived in three republics. The life of the First Republic was short, but its territory was large. The first was founded by the national-democratic intelligentsia of Azerbaijan, and the people defended them.
The life of the second republic was longer than the first, but they took away a lot of our territory. The Second Republic drew a line under the achievements of the First Republic. The Second Republic was established as a result of outside intervention. This Republic was called an ally, not an independent one.
The Third Republic was founded in 1991. The Third Republic declared itself the political successor of the First Republic. This Republic was created as a result of the demand and will of the people. This Republic has been living, creating and being a member of the most influential organizations in the world for almost 30 years. The Republic of Azerbaijan continues to fight in all directions for the permanent waving of the tricolor flag raised by the First Republic in the sovereign territory of Azerbaijan. The battles of April 2016 proved to the whole world that Azerbaijan has a strong army to liberate its historical lands, the most modern weapons, and an unshakable unity of power with the people, led by President Ilham Aliyev.

With God's help, Azerbaijan will soon win this war.
Happy Republic Day.

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