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THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ANCIENT AND MIDDLE AGES HISTORY

The department was established in 1981. Since 1991 the head of the department is Y.M.Mahmudov- professor, deputy of the Parliament, the member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Science.

The scientific-pedagogical content of the teachers of the department

The teaching subjects

Ancient history

1. The Ancient history covers a very important part in the history of the mankind development. During this period for the first time in a world history there are such all-important events, as formation of the class society, the first cities and the states. The Ancient history is a history of slaveholding societies of the Ancient East, the Ancient Greece and Rome. This course is subdivided into history of the countries of the Ancient East and Antique history (the Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.)

The main objective of teaching of this subject is to form a conception of the ancient states of the East, Greece and Rome, mastering by the student the general laws of process of formation of the state and a slaveholding system, development the skills of the comparative analysis of features of development of slaveholding societies of the Ancient East, Greece and Rome. The student-historian should penetrate in particular political, social and economic and cultural development of these societies, and also be able to see the influence of these societies on the subsequent stages of development of a human society.

The Ancient history is an important component of a university course of a world history. The subject covers the period from IV thousand BC to 476 year. During the subject teaching a special attention is given also to the political, economic and cultural contact of the ancient states of the East and a classical antiquity with early state formations and the ancient states of Azerbaijan.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – written examination.

 

History of the middle Ages

1. The history of the middle Ages covers a big and important period of world history. Being an important stage in the history of development of a human society, this period has the general and original features, both for East and West civilizations. The Middle Ages are the period of formation of the majority of the people and tracings of ethnic and political maps of the states, prosperity of feudal cities as the centers of craft and trade, occurrence of world religions, the period when there were large social movements.

The main objective in subject teaching is formation at students the general concept of the major problems of the  history of the Middle Ages in Europe – about Great resettlement of the people, formation of feudalism, medieval cities, crusades, occurrence of the centralized states in Europe, Great geographical discoveries, colonialism, features of origin of capitalist elements in the European society. The important purpose also is the direction of attention of students on the basic aspects of the above-stated problems. The student-historian should realize features of the political, social and economic and cultural development of medieval societies of Europe and study them in comparison with societies of the East of the synchronous period.

The course, in accordance to a periodization of history of the middle Ages, is conducted in two parts: 1) the early and classical Middle Ages; 2) the later middle Ages. During the subject teaching the special place is also given to the politic-diplomatic questions along with the economic and cultural contacts between European countries and Azerbaijan.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – written examination.

 

History of civilizations

1. "The history of civilizations" is one of new subjects in system of the higher historical education of the Azerbaijan Republic. The factors causing the necessity of teaching this course are the actualization of problems of dialogue and collision of civilizations in the conditions of globalization of the modern world, a new view on studying of historical process, revealing of lacks of Marxist ideology about the unilateral approach of the theory about formations, advantage of the theory about civilizations for studying of laws of historical development.

The history of Europe, especially the history of the middle Ages, continues to keep the urgency for a modern historiography. And it first of all connects with the particular events which have occurred in Europe in the middle Ages and their greater influence on the world history. Great resettlement of the people, Frankish Empire, the Byzantine culture, the Renaissance, Great geographical discoveries, beginnings of system of colonialism, Reformation are the events which continue to influence on life of modern Europe and Europeans.

The subject "History of civilizations" has the aim of revealing and teaching these features. During the study of a subject there should be generated the scientific comprehension of process of origin and development of civilizations at the students. Along with research of the general and distinctive features of the European civilization with others, that circumstance should be underlined especially that it doesn't surpass a civilization of the East and borrowed much from the last one. Research and teaching of the history of the European civilizations is an important component of the higher historical education.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – written examination.

 

Ancient and medieval history of America

1. Long time in a historiography and in system of the higher historical education the history of America was studied since the period of Europeans arrival on this continent. It has been connected, first of all, with hegemony of the Europocentrism in a historical science. Though on the American continent there were the civilizations which have left a huge cultural heritage – civilizations of the Maya, Incas and Aztecs. Studying of history of these civilizations is not only a problem of ethnographers, but also experts in medievalism.

During the subject teaching, along with the history of the Maya, Incas and Aztecs cultures, the attention is also given to the history of other people and the state formations existing on the American continent.

The main objective of teaching "Ancient and medieval history of America" subject consists in studying the history of societies of the pre-Columbian America, definition of a role of these societies in the course of a world history, and also formation at students of full notion about an ancient and medieval history of America.

The course is taught to the students of historical faculty getting education on a specialty "American studies" and has also practical value for preparation of professional experts across America.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – written examination.

 

History of the international relations (the Ancient period and the middle Ages)

1. Study of history of the international relations arisen and generated during the Ancient period, is one of the actual problems of a historiography. Therefore the teaching of this subject is very important in the higher historical education. During the modern period, in the conditions of growth of world integration, "the Great Silk way", regions of Black Sea Coast and the Mediterranean once again find the political and economic value for the world. Research of history of these communications, search for the reasons and the decision of the international conflicts of the modern world, studying of the international relations which sometimes wrongly identify with new and modern history though their beginning has been put during the ancient period, and in the Middle Ages they have been added by a number of new signs, ways of their perfection, has scientific and practical value.

The subject "History of the International relations (the Ancient period and the Middle Ages)" being a component of a course of general history of University, studies history of the international relations of the ancient states and the middle Ages. It covers the period from the IV thousand before B.C. to the middle of the XVII-th century. During the subject study the scientific understanding of process of origin and development of the international relations should be formed at the students. During the ancient period there were the most ancient states of the East, the new forms of a political system, economic and cultural life, political and economic relations have arisen, and not only between the states of the Ancient East, but also with the antiquity world. In the East the first friendly and peace treaties were concluded. A number of the diplomatic establishments existing in ancient Greece and Rome and important elements of foreign policy, have influenced on formation of the international relations not only in the middle Ages, but also in the modern period. In the middle Ages there was an improvement of the international relations, there were new ways in their character, the international law and advanced international establishments were formed. Studying and teaching the history of these relations is an important component of the higher historical education.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – written examination.

 

Bases of studying of Altai

1. The course "Bases of studying of Altai", studying the Altay people, who played one of the leading roles in a world history, both on the political history, and on the cultural heritage, is one of the important subjects studied by students-historians. The main objective of teaching of a subject "Bases of studying of Altai" is to track process of political, economic and cultural development of the Altai people existing during the Ancient period and the Middle Ages in the form of various empires and the states, to give particular attention to Azerbaijan which is a part of the Altay world, to achieve a complex study of history of the Altay people. It has scientifically-practical value for definition of a place of the Altay people in a world history, and for history of Azerbaijan.

In subject teaching the paramount attention is given to studying of the people composing the Turkic group of the Altay people. In this connection the particular attention is given to teaching in wider form of Huns, Saka, Scythians, Kipchaks, Seljuqs, who played the big role and in the history of Azerbaijan. At the same time there is a teaching of history of Turkic tribes and the people which were settled in territory of Azerbaijan and have a great importance in its ethno-political history.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – oral check.

 

Religion history

1. One of the significant parts of the higher historical education is the teaching of the history of culture and religion. From the beginning of formation of a human society the religion played a great role in its political, cultural, social and economic life. On the one hand, the religion has played the big role in formation of unity of a society, has given a stimulus in a  cultural lifting, and with another – caused split, heterodoxy and ignorance. The role of religion in a modern society is incontestable too. From this side the study of the history of religion has scientifically-practical value from the scientific point of view for the student-historian.

The main objective in teaching "The History of religion" subject is formation at the student-historian the full scientific concept about world religions, and first of all, about the Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Sintoism, definition of a role of religion in the history of a society. In this connection, the special attention in the course of teaching is given to the polytheistic religions, conditions of occurrence of monotheism, a place of monotheist religions in a world history, a position of religion and clergy in the modern world, to problems of secular and spiritual statehood. Considering features of a religious situation in Azerbaijan, in the course of teaching the special attention is paid to the history of Islam.

2. A method of estimation of a subject – written examination.

The scientific directions of the department

  • The major problem that is investigated by the department is the issue o "The mutual relations between Europe and Asia and Azerbaijan". The scientific-research works are conducted in 2 spheres that are mentioned below:
  • The role of Azerbaijan in mutual trade, political and cultural relations of European countries.
  • The relations of Ancient Azerbaijan with the Eastern and antic world countries.
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