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Heydar Aliyev

“Baku State University grew great scientists, public workers and creative thinkers. But the most prominent graduator of Baku State University, who was related to the culture and identity of Azerbaijan closely, symbol of our nation, and the establisher of Azerbaijan is Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev. Baku State University has no other graduator as Heydar Aliyev, who raised the honor of University as well as Azerbaijan and who served to his nation.”


Academic A.M.Maharramov
The rector of Baku State University


Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev was born on 10 May 1923 in the city of Nakhchivan of Azerbaijan. In 1939, after graduating from the Nakhchivan Pedagogical School he studied at the architectural department of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy). The incipient war impeded to complete his education.
Since 1941, Heydar Aliyev heads the department at the People Commissariat of Internal Affairs of Nakhchivan ASSR and on 1944 was sent to work at the state security bodies. In these years, he received special higher education in Leningrad (now St Petersburg), and in 1957, he graduated from the history department of Azerbaijan State University. Heydar Aliyev, working since that time in the security bodies, since 1964 held the post of deputy chairman, and since 1967 - chairman of the Committee of State Security under the Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan Republic, and he was conferred the rank of lieutenant general.
Being elected at the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan in July 1969 as the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev heads the Republic. The first phase of Heydar Aliyev’s leadership began from this time. So, In August Assembly of the Central Committee of the Communist party of Azerbaijan (1969) Heydar Aliyev determined the new line of spreading in cultural building and national economy and in other spheres as well; so that, these reforms made a great impression on the life level of the nation, prevented the decline of social-economic incline of the state.
Since the initial years of his authority, Heydar Aliyev prepared a comprehensive conception of economic development; there were established plenty of new spheres and industrial field was modernized as well under his responsibility. At the result of his activity the cultural level raised, historical memory of the nation was returned to himself. Simultaneously, there were implemented numerous efforts in order to strengthen and realize the ideas of the statehood. At the result of these actions there began a new phase of raising in social-economic life of the state and the independence of Azerbaijan was laid down.
In December 1982, Heydar Aliyev has been elected as Alternate member of Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union, and appointed at the post of the First Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR and became one of the leaders of the USSR. During twenty years, Heydar Aliyev was the Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and for five years was Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
In October 1987, Heydar Aliyev, as a sign of protest against the policy pursued by Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and personally the Secretary General Michael Gorbachev, resigned from his post.
In bound with the tragedy, committed on 20 January 1990 in Baku by the soviet troops, appearing on the next day at the Azerbaijan Representation in Moscow with a statement, demanded to punish the organizers and executors of the crime, committed against the people of Azerbaijan. As a sign of protest against the hypocritical policy of leadership of the USSR, in connection with the critical conflict accrued in Mountainous Karabakh, in July 1991, he left the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
By return in July 1990 to Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev has lived at first in Baku, then in Nakhchivan, and on the same year he was elected as the Deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. In 1991-1993s, he held the post of Chairman of the Supreme Mejlis (Parliament) of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Deputy Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan. In 1992, at the constituent congress of the "New Azerbaijan" Party in Nakhchivan, Heydar Aliyev, was elected as the Chairman of the Party.
In May-June 1993, when, as the result of extreme tension of the governmental crisis, the country was at the verge of civil war and loss of independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring to power Heydar Aliyev. The then leaders of Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku. On 15 June 1993, Heydar Aliyev was elected as the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan, and on 24 July - on resolution of the Milli Mejlis (Parliament), he managed to fulfill powers of the President of Azerbaijan Republic. The second phase of Heydar Aliyev’s authority began from this time.
On October 3, 1993, as the result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected as the President of Azerbaijan Republic. At the inauguration process, October 10 he appealed to the nation in such words: “In this responsible post I’m relying on only the intellect and wisdom of Azerbaijan nation and promise that I’ll do my best in order to increase the life conditions of Azerbaijan nation.”
On October 11, 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 76,1 percent of the votes, he was re-elected as the President of Azerbaijan Republic.
Possessing deep knowledge and world-outlook, Heydar Aliyev paid great attention to the investigation of native history, took care of this sphere as well as, gave a push to the development of history science. His appeals to the nation about the various historical events and prominent historical personalities, decrees, related to the popular deportation of Azerbaijanis from their historical-ethnic land in Armenia SSR (December 18. 1997) and genocide (March 26, 1998) are the bright examples to this. Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, Heydar Aliyev relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.
Heydar Aliyev was awarded with Lenin order four times, order of Red Star, awarded with numerous medals, got rank of the Hero of the Socialistic Labor twice, awarded with many orders and medals of foreign countries. Simultaneously, he was rewarded with number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected Honorable Doctor of the universities in many countries, as well as, was honored to the honorary title of “The man of the year over the world” (1997), given by Nargiz TV, “Silk way service prize” (1998), initiated by the “Silk way foundation”, “International Peace reward of Ataturk” (1999). Also, for the efforts on the interstate development, regulation of the regional relations and political stability, Heydar Aliyev was rewarded with “Gold Star” award, initiated by the international rating organization of “Gold Fortune” in 2001.
On December 12, 2003 national leader of Azerbaijan, President Heydar Aliyev passed away in Cleveland hospital in the United States of America and was buried in the Honorary Avenue, in Baku.
As you know Heydar Aliyev was the graduator of the faculty of History; one of the specialties he studied is the history. When we come across the reports, appeals to the nation, content of decrees made by Heydar Aliyev, we will get acquainted with the history of Azerbaijan, concerned to the 70-80s of XX century. Heydar Aliyev had always given attention to the accurate investigation of the history of Azerbaijan and gave impetus to the development of this history. During the meetings with scientists he also reminded them the issues that should been introduced to young generation.
On January 31, 1997 and On February 11, 2000, at the meetings with the scientists of ANAS and BSU Heydar Aliyev analyzed the state of the history science and stressed the importance of its study and investigation: “We don’t have to modify history. Everything has its own place in history and it doesn’t depend on us. History is an objective process and it is impossible to influence it. It is history.”

The investigation of the history of XX century, the evaluation and illumination of the various processes of this phase by Heydar Aliyev became the initial source, scientific treasure for the history. The implementation of this generalized investigation by the leader of the state is much more valuable. In Heydar Aliyev’s appeal to the nation there were reflected the realities of historical way that passed our nation, and different phases of the history of Azerbaijan. The professor s of the faculty of History, Y.M.Mahmudov and Q.M.Bayramov also confirmed that, different periods and events of our history, generally, the history of independence in Azerbaijan were widely analyzed and illuminated in this document.

On May 27, 1997, in the ceremony organized related to the Republic Day, Heydar Aliyev spoke about the history of Azerbaijan in XX century – the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, its activity and reasons of collapse, the activity of Azerbaijan SSR in the period of 1920-1922, the circumstances in Azerbaijan under the 70 years dependence from the USSR, the declaration of independence in 1991 and other events, stressed the importance of its investigation by the historians.

In the conferences, organized related to the implementation of decrees about the 80th and 85th year anniversaries, which announced in 1998 and 2003, there was decided to compile the Encyclopedia of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. In 2003 this responsibility was given to the pedagogical staff the faculty of History and they implemented this duty in high level.

Initially Heydar Aliyev politically evaluated the events of March 31 and gave decree about this genocide on March 26, 1998. Simultaneously, this decree has great importance as it is the first official document as well. In this document that encouraged to come across the realities, this historical tragedy was evaluated as genocide.

Also On December 18, 1997, the president of the Azerbaijan Republic, Heydar Aliyev gave a decree related to the mass deportation of Azerbaijanis lived in Armenia SSR. On the basis of these documents there were achieved some innovations in the investigation of the XIX-XX centuries’ history. So, at the result of these the history of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the history of khanates, the life and activities of prominent people objectively investigated.

Heydar Aliyev said: “We should show both white and black sides of our history, we should show tragedy as well as success and luck.
We had a lot of historians, who modified the native history, especially in the period of Soviet regime. Unfortunately after the collapse of the USSR, they modify the past. You are scientists, you know it. In my opinion there is no need to say it you, but it is my position. My position is this that, Azerbaijanis passed a long period of development during these 70 years. They were educated and enlightened. Our Republic is together with other states as well as then.”

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